Vincent van gogh ohr ab

The period that Vincent van Gogh spent an Arles und Saint-Rémy from 1888 zu 1890 indeed belongs to the most an imaginative phase of his artistic career. The existence des the practically identical paintings von Madame Augustine Roulin, the wife of the arles postmaster, ist consequently all ns more surprising. Us encounter herstellung portrait – typically known in English as mam Roulin Rocking ns Cradle (La Berceuse) – an five international museums, and until 1970 there also existed a 6th version of the portrait, which was then discovered kommen sie be a copy von Emile Schuffenecker und consequently gotten rid of from the juni la Faille catalogue raisonné.1 an the case des the version housed in Boston, Chicago, neu York, Amsterdam und Otterlo2, however, we have firm proof that they were executed von Vincent van Gogh in the period betwee the end of December 1888 and the ende of in march 1889. Despite this documented resource material, however, die question together to die "why" of these repetitions, which exhibit only marginal variations, has to date no been raised nor answered. A absence of modell cannot oase been the reason, not least since an the weeks preceding this series, ventil Gogh painted all five members von the postmaster"s family, von whom only the portrait des Madame Roulin was then repeated 4 times. Die following study as such examines ns question von whether Vincent ventil Gogh, in a similar mode as through his lot of repetitions von the portrait von Madame Ginoux as die embodiment of the emblematic L"Arlésienne, illustrated his neighbour Augustine Roulin as a symbol von maternity und womanly comfort and solace, as nett historians have held up till now. Ns results von this ermittlung contradict present findings and lead zu surprising conclusions.

By his very own account, van Gogh arrived at die motif of kelle Berceuse through reading die novel Pecheur d"Islande ("Icelandic fisherman") by Pierre Loti.3 "On die subject of , I"ve just said to Gauguin that together he und I speak about ns Icelandic fishermen and their melancholy isolation, exposed to all the dangers, alone on the sad sea, I"ve nur said zu Gauguin around it that, following these intimate conversations, the idea came zu me kommen sie paint together a gemälde that sailors, weist once children und martyrs, seeing it in the cabin of a boat des Icelandic fishermen, would experience a feeling des being rocked, reminding them des their own lullabies."4


Photograph © Museum von Fine arts Boston

Vincent van Gogh"s portrait reflects Madame Roulin seated in a brown wooden armchair in front des multi-coloured French floral wallpaper that occupies the upper two thirds des the background.5 die lower third reproduces the red of the floor, versus which the sitter"s pale environment-friendly skirt stands out clearly. Produziert plain, long-sleeved, dark green top reveals a pale blue lining at ns neck und cuffs und emphasizes ns blue of her eyes, which are gazing downwards, lost bei thought, at an indeterminate point in the room. Herstellung reddish blonde hair ist combed back severely from her face. Her plait ist pinned trost like a crown on the rückseitig of herstellung head, lending die face des this mother-of-three grace und dignity. It zu sein clear from produziert hands, which room folded calmly bei her lap, that ns composition was originally conceived without ns rope. The looped end of ns cord ist covered by the sitter"s hands, while its 2 fraying lengths are cut off über the lower edge von the picture. Madame Roulin put on a double maßband on die fourth finger of herstellung left hand, which lies outstretched and relaxed on top von the right. The gleams von light on herstellung skirt and the suggestion von gathered folds room conveyed through small brushstrokes in a darker shade des green, which to be evidently only laid down after ns rope had found its plainly visible place. van Gogh wanted ns painting to sing "a lullaby in colour" the radiated soothing tranquillity and comfort through its graduated colour contrasts.6 in 2001 Kristin Hoermann Lister published a an extensive analysis of the 5 versions of kelle Berceuse based upon art-historical scholarship, a in-depth study of painting technique and scientific examinations, und ordered die paintings into chronological sequence.7 It was revealed über these researches that van Gogh had employed a tracing method that enabled er to copy portraits he had painted earlier. But whereas Vincent freely confessed to the use des a perspective frame, nowhere in his works does he do reference to tracing. X-ray analyses clearly zeigen that ns artist was familiar with ns various methods des tracing and employed them bei his multiple repetitions des the Berceuse motif.8 Tracings were usually made von placing a thin, translucent sheet von paper ~ above top of the original und drawing over its edge lines. über going over these lines in charcoal or chalk on the reverse von the tracing paper und then placing die sheet on top of a fresh canvas, die outlines von the original could be transferred zu the neu support.

Hoermann Lister"s investigations into ventil Gogh"s painting technique notfall only prove that die artist provided tracings in his arbeiten on die portrait series la Berceuse, but deshalb point up ns difficulties the he experienced with watch insignificant und subordinate details, together as ns painting von the hands und the rope on the lap des Madame Roulin"s skirt. Die hand/rope combination is different in each des the five versions, und yet all von them it seems ~ strangely unsatisfactory, leading Hoermann Lister zu conclude the "The hands and rope were ns aspects of kelle Berceuse the troubled van Gogh most".9

At zuerst sight, die rope in Madame Roulin"s hand appears a young attribute worthy des no unique attention. X-ray und microscopic examinations of the boston original10 reveal, however, that ventil Gogh added die hands and rope punkt a really much danach stage.11 This finding has been disregarded in previous scholarship und no further conclusions schutz been drawn from it. When und above all why the relatively unauthorized portrait von the artist"s neighbour was transformed, merely via die addition of a rope, into kelle Berceuse – which bei French way "lullaby" and "woman rocking the cradle" – nevertheless deserves closer attention.

Du schaust: Vincent van gogh ohr ab

After his break down on 23 December 1888, his subsequent admission to hospital an Arles and his discharge top top 7 januar 1889, Vincent van Gogh himself mentions 4 times in one hauptsächlich – in letters to paul Gauguin, his brothers Theo ventil Gogh, his freund Arnold Koning and again zu Theo12 – the he has actually resumed work on ns portrait des Madame Roulin. An the letter von 21 january 1889 addressed zu Gauguin, we check out surprisingly of a "lullaby": "Today ich made a fresh anfang on ns canvas ich had painted of Mrs Roulin, die one which had remained an a vague zustand as regards die hands because of my accident... As in Impressionist arrangement of colours, I"ve never ever devised anything better. Und I glauben that if one placed this canvas just as the is in a boat, even one des Icelandic fishermen, there would be some that would feel the lullaby bei it."13 more on bei the same latter, van Gogh write that, during his illness, he seems to oase sung a lullaby: "I that can"t sing on various other occasions, to be precise bei old wet-nurse"s lied while thinking of what ns cradle-rocker singen as she rocked die sailors and whom ich had seek in in arrangement des colours prior to falling ill."14 bei this letter zu Gauguin, the notion von the lullaby (berceuse) appears for the erste time an the sources. The next day Vincent deshalb mentions having actually completed "the hands that hold ns cradle cord" in his letter kommen sie Koning and hopes (as cited above) that he may schutz "sung a lullaby in colour".15 in his letter kommen sie Theo von 28 januar 1889, Vincent then writes – in words an extremely similar kommen sie those used in his letter zu Gauguin – des having painted a picture that would certainly remind icelandic fishermen des lullabies.16

The conviction that la Berceuse was originally laid out merely as a portrait and only came to be "The Lullaby" through die addition of the rope was voiced as long ago together 1992 von Jan Hulsker: "The implication that she was sitting über a cradle was probably introduced with ns late addition of the 2 pieces von cord. If one aussehen at the foto closely, eliminating zum a momente those 2 insignificant details at ns bottom, it becomes apparent that ns hands host nothing; they space quietly lying bei the woman"s lap, constant with the pose des a seated number (as seen, for example, bei van Gogh"s portrait von a lady seated by a cradle and an the 2 portraits of Père Tanguy ). It ist not clear exactly when van Gogh added die two pieces of cord to ns original picture. What we know for certain ist that ns portrait had zum a time continued to be unfinished as far as die hands were pertained to ("restée à l`état vague to water les mains" was ns phrase ventil Gogh used bei his letter kommen sie Gauguin). It was not before 22 january 1889 the he stated "the hand holding die rope of the cradle" bei his letter to Koning, und from that augenblicke onwards the portrait des Madame Roulin can enter history as "La Berceuse"."17 It should be detailed that van Gogh had not yet completed ns portrait von Madame Roulin when die final argumente with Gauguin erupted ~ above 23 December 1888 and he uncovered himself ns following morning an Arles hospital through a severe injury kommen sie his left ear. He was discharged top top 7 january 1889, reportedly recovered.

It was a full fortnight ~ leaving hospital the Vincent wrote the letters zu Gauguin, Theo and Koning in which the reports that he has actually resumed work on ns portrait of Madame Roulin. When, according to his own information, he was once an ext able to devote self to die portrait on 21 january 1889, he notfall only completed ns hands however added in attribute. Through ns addition of the rope, die portrait of Madame Roulin for this reason underwent a metamorphosis und became "The Lullaby", kelle Berceuse. However why?

What prompted ventil Gogh kommen sie place a rope belatedly bei Madame Roulin"s lap, offered that die postmaster"s wife remains without eye contact and wholly unconcerned with ns fictive infant in the fictive cradle? Stoic and with in absent air, she gazes into ns middle distance. Ns cradle cord – wiegetouw, as van Gogh calls it bei Dutch18 – shows up like a foreign body that ist partially covered von Madame Roulin"s hand but not interlaced with them.

A cultural history von the cradle19 expose that, in 19th-century France in particular, cradles were commonly rocked von means von a strap system – but never through a rope. A cradle was normally furnished with three or 4 pommels follow me its sides, to which die rocking strap was fastened. Beginning with one end, the strap was laced in a criss-cross mode over ns coverlet and the child tucked beneath. This prevented the child indigenous falling the end when ns cradle was rocked. As a rule, the strap was a flat, woven band measuring part 3–5 centimeter wide, v a woven sample or finely embroidered. The mother or nurse wound die loose end around her hand so that, über pulling the strap taut, she could anfang rocking the cradle. The mother-and-baby portrait of Madame Roulin und her daughter Marcelle, painted von Vincent van Gogh a couple of weeks earlier, shows the infant dressed bei the style befitting the child des a postmaster.20 If madame Roulin had actually used a strap to rock ns cradle, it would undoubtedly oase been an embroidered band und not a rope. It zu sein therefore zu be assumed that ventil Gogh added die rope top top the basis of his imagination und not from straight observation, all the more dafür since he has actually painted two strands von rope instead of nur the single ende of a normal rocking strap.21

In none des the five versions may ns belated addition of the rope attribute be taken into consideration altogether resolved from a officially point des view. Explanations placed forward zu date likewise fail kommen sie convince. Thus die suggestion that van Gogh was simply notfall very good at hands, zum example, ist hard zu credit.22 equally problematic are ns confusing title given zu these works in different languages. They reveal die visible discrepancy bolzen Madame Roulin"s hand lying calmly bei her lap and her supposed activity. Therefore all five versions of the portrait are dubbed Madame Roulin Rocking ns Cradle (La Berceuse) in the English catalogue accompanying die 2001–02 exhibition van Gogh and Gauguin. Ns Studio von the South, organized über the chicago Institute von Art and the ventil Gogh Museum an Amsterdam. This title is contradicted, however, von the German ausführung of ns same catalogue, where die official translation is Madame Roulin bei der Spinnen (La Berceuse), which equates as "Madame Roulin Spinning".23 when it is true that the French indigenous berceuse can mean both "lullaby" and "woman rocking a cradle", all des these titles are unconvincing because Madame Roulin is quite clearly neither rocking a cradle no one spinning.

On the contrary, ns strange insertion des the rope, which was only added after Vincent"s discharge native hospital und was notfall part of the original design24, points zu a more complex level des meaning.

In a lang letter composed on 17 januar 1889, ten work after the left hospital, Vincent aims to fulfil his brother"s request for in explanation des his terrible row through Gauguin.25 He notifies Theo about the disappointing behaviour des his artist partner before, during and after ns momentous argument of 23 December 1888, an the kurse of which Vincent lost an ear. An relating what happened, however, ventil Gogh evidently found himself an a extensive dilemma. On die one hand he wanted to clarify the situation zum his brother, while on die other he had actually evidently made a promise zu Gauguin notfall to speak about the incident, weist which there were no other witnesses. Gauguin confirms this zuerst of all an the account von the events of 23 December 1888 that he gave in person kommen sie Emile Bernhard, who repeated it partly verbatim bei a letter kommen sie Albert Aurier des 1 january 1889. According to Bernard, instantly after their diskutieren van Gogh said kommen sie Gauguin: "You room silent, but ich shall be so too."26 There was a promise, bei other words, to keep quiet about ns incident. Aftermath arising out des this zum art-historical scholarship were zum a long time disregarded in the practically boundless literature on ventil Gogh und Gauguin. Only an a examine on ventil Gogh and Gauguin"s stay an Arles, published in 2008, was it possible, on the basis of this und other formerly neglected sources, kommen sie decipher with an excellent plausibility the true course of ns violent confrontation betwee the 2 artists.27

In order zu resolve the dilemma facing him an the above-mentioned letter of 17 January, namely zu explain zu Theo ns dramatic events des 23 December there is no breaking his oath of silence to Gauguin, Vincent ventil Gogh – as deshalb often wie man describing details situations an his life – turns kommen sie literature. Die close relationship betwee literature und van Gogh"s intuitive language was underlined an ext than two years ago by Judy Sund: "As in other times des crisis <...> van Gogh, bei the wake von his erste nervous collapse, took refuge in literature. He found that fictional situations notfall only listed escape native his own problems and anxieties, but also suggested metaphors weil das his dilemma und modes von describing and explaining the events he sought zu reconstruct."28 bei the present case the artist refers zu a passage from a book that he might be certain both Theo and Gauguin had either already read or would read bei full.

In the same reply zu Theo of 17 January, Vincent thus writes: "Has Gauguin ever check out Tartarin sur les Alpes, and does the remember Tartarin"s illustrious pal from Tarascon who had actually such an imagination that in one fell swoop the imagined in entire imaginary Switzerland? Does that remember die knot bei a rope rediscovered high up an the Alps after the fall? and you, who wish to know how jene happened, oase you ever read the whole von Tartarin? That would certainly teach you to recognize Gauguin pretty well. Ich urge you an all seriousness to look weist that passage in Daudet"s publication again."29

A parallel referral appears bei Vincent"s letter to Gauguin of 21 January: "Have you read Tartarin bei full von now? the imagination of the southern creates pals, doesn"t it, und between us we always have friendship."30

In these two letters, in other words, Vincent asks both his brother und Gauguin to read Tartarin an full.

Tartarin sur les Alpes über Alphonse Daudet appeared bei 1885 as the second part of a trilogy31 und recounts ns adventures von Tartarin und his freundin Bompard in the Alps. Like ns trials endured von the two friends an the mountains, Vincent regarded living and working together in the south of france as a challenge for Gauguin und himself. Similar kommen sie Daudet"s heroes, he so believed that intensely common experiences an the South can turn 2 men into close comrades.

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He for this reason makes specific reference kommen sie one des the adventures shared von the two protagonists at ns very end of die book, wie Tartarin and Bompard embark top top a hazardous expedition zu climb Mont-Blanc. Struggling through the snow, roped together, they lose sight des one another wie Tartarin disappears behind in arête. Ns rope unexpectedly snags ~ above a rock; both parties feel a violent tug and assume that the other has actually taken a fall. Zu prevent themselves gift dragged to their death, every cuts die rope, one v a knife und the other with an ice-axe. Each is then encouraged that he has sacrificed his freundin to conserve himself. Bompard descends die mountain alone and announces that ns rope broke and Tartarin is lost. A search zu sein launched, however no trace of Tartarin zu sein found. Every that zu sein discovered zu sein "a section von rope trapped an a crevice of eis at the Dôme du Goûter. However this rope, strangely, was cut at both ends together if through a spicy implement."32

The complying with are illustrations of the cutted rope an three various editions (1885, 1885 and 1886). As tun können be proofed, one des them was located in the "Yellow House". It was used von van Gogh wie man finishing "La Berceuse" as a symbol of lie and treachery.


Alphonse Daudet, Tartarin sur les Alpes, paris Calman-Levy, 1885, p.334


Alphonse Daudet, Tartarin sur les Alpes, 1886, p.334

It was convincing proof of the deceitful lie that Bompard had invented and which was subsequently accepted by the people von Tarascon, being a "race deshalb at ease v tall stories, v audacious und quickly refuted lies".33 ns novel close the door with ns illustration of a rope as ns corpus delicti.34


Alphonse Daudet, Tartarin sur les Alpes, 1885, p.348

If Vincent ventil Gogh, requested über his brother to describe the kurse of die drama, just refers ihm to the ende of Daudet"s novel, makes explicit mention des "the knot in a rope" und associates Gauguin with ns "illustrious , who had such in imagination that bei one fell swoop he imagined in entire imagine Switzerland", it have to necessarily it is in assumed that ns account provided out von Gauguin, according kommen sie which van Gogh allegedly reduced off his ear through a razorblade, zu sein likewise various to ns true version of events.

The rope the Vincent belatedly places in Madame Roulin"s lap upon resuming arbeiten on her portrait consequently becomes a metaphor for a lie told zu people who are happy und willing to believe it.

Analagous zu Tartarin und Bompard, van Gogh and Gauguin had ample reasons zu conceal their behaviour on the evening die catastrophe occurred. Ventil Gogh felt himself zu a particular extent jointly responsible weil das the argument, because he had been trying through all his means zu keep his collaborative studio job with Gauguin alive. This latter, however, had currently signalled his desire – even prior to 23 December 1888 – kommen sie terminate his stay bei Arles, something the may oase triggered ns escalation. If ventil Gogh retained silent bei line v his promise kommen sie Gauguin, it was because that was blieb hoping that the two des them would certainly be able kommen sie continue living und working together. Gauguin, by contrast, was justifiably afraid von a criminal prosecution.35 wie man questioned by the police, that came trost with a fabricated story the exonerated ihm of every blame and then fled zu Paris. He made certain that he never ever met Vincent van Gogh again.

Vincent, von contrast, inquiry Gauguin in vain if they can talk sachen over. Top top 17 january 1889 Vincent complained to Theo: "How kann sein Gauguin claim to oase feared mental me von his presence wie he would oase difficulty denying that he knew ich asked zum him continually, and people told him time and again that i was insisting top top seeing ihm that really moment? Precisely zu tell ihm to store it betwee himself and me there is no disturbing you. He wouldn"t listen."36 Instead von providing Theo with an account von the events des the night prior to Christmas Eve, upon returning zu his blieb unfinished portrait of Madame Roulin Vincent laid die rope bei her lap. In order to be sure ns allusion would be understood, ventil Gogh specifically requests both his brother und Gauguin to read Tartarin bei full, since die key significance des the "rope" zu sein only revealed hinweisen the end of die novel.

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Van Gogh competed the zuerst version of kelle Berceuse ~ 21 january 1889. Ns second and third versions followed an rapid succession. ~ above 3 February 1889 Vincent announced that he was starting work on a 4th Berceuse, but ns ritual character of these compulsive repetitions led to a second health crisis. On 7 February Vincent ventil Gogh was again admitted to hospital. Hinweisen this allude he was weeping continuously und unable to speak.

Van Gogh plan a copy of la Berceuse zum each of the civilization most necessary to ihm at that time: Theo ventil Gogh, paul Gauguin, Emil Bernard and the Roulin family. He maintained one version weil das himself.37 All 5 portraits von Madame Roulin, called la Berceuse, are today on display an public museums.

1. Faille, jakob Baart, außerdem la, The works des Vincent van Gogh, His paintings und drawings, Amsterdam 1970↩

2. Museum des Fine Arts, Boston, Vincent van Gogh, f 508, 22.01.1889; The nett Institute von Chicago, Vincent ventil Gogh, f 505, 29.01.1889; ns Metropolitan Museum von Art, neu York, Vincent van Gogh, f 506, 29.01.1889; Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, Vincent van Gogh, f 507, 22.01.1889; Kröller Möller Museum, Otterlo, Vincent ventil Gogh, F504, 29.03.1889↩

3. Pierre Loti, Pecheur d"Islande, paris 1886↩

4. "Je viens juni dire à Gauguin au sujet dach cette toile que lui et moi ayant causé des pecheurs d`Islande et außerdem leur isolement mélancolique, exposés à tous les dangers, seuls sur la triste mer, wenn viens d"en dire à Gauguin qu"en suite außerdem ces conversations intimes, il m"était to meet l"idée außerdem peindre un tel tableau que des marins, à la fois enfants et martyrs, le voyant dans la cabine d"un bateau de pecheurs d"Islande, éprouveraient un sentiment juni bercement leur rappelant leur propre chant dach nourrice." Vincent kommen sie Theo ventil Gogh, letter 743, 28.01.1889, in: leo Jansen, hans Luijten, Nienke Bakker (eds.) (2009), Vincent van Gogh – ns Letters. Version: December 2010. Amsterdam & ns Hague: van Gogh Museum & Huygens ING. Cited here from↩

5. Ns description bei the following passage is based ~ above the boston painting des La Berceuse, which Kristin Hoermann Lister convincingly identifies as the first version of the portrait. Seen Kristin Hoermann Lister, "Tracing a transformation: madame Roulin into La Berceuse", in: Van Gogh Museum journal 2001, ventil Gogh Museum, Amsterdam 2001, pp. 63–82.↩

6. "Heb ik met kleur reeds een wiegeliedje gezongen". Vincent ventil Gogh to Arnold Koning, letter 740 of 22.01.1889, in: Jansen/Luijten Bakker 2010. Cited below from↩

7. Hoermann Lister 2001, op. Cit.↩

8. Ventil Gogh"s use von tracings was zuerst proposed über Roland Dorn bei "The arles period: symbolic means, decorate ends", in: Van Gogh face zu face, exh. Cat. Ns Detroit Institute von Arts, Detroit 2000, pp. 140–141. Wie Hoermann Lister laid durchmacht scans of the portraits on top des each other, she observed the "the similarities hence revealed were so astonishing, that it was immediately evident – even without primary proof – that the artist had actually indeed used ns tracing method."↩

9. Hoermann Lister 2001, op. Cit., p. 65↩

10. This author accepts Hoermann Lister"s conclusion that the boston version of la Berceuse was die prototype from which the other 4 followed. Lakers note 5.↩

11. "Microscopic examination has actually revealed that die Boston and Amsterdam execution had areas that were completely dry wie man subsequent layers, including the hands and rope, were added and that the Chicago und New york versions were painted an extremely quickly, wet-into-wet, together was die Otterlo version." Hoermann Lister 2001, op. Cit., p. 73↩

12. Vincent ventil Gogh to paul Gauguin, letter 739 von 21.01.1889; zu Theo van Gogh, letter 741 des 22.01.1889; to Arnold Koning, letter 740 of 22.01.1889; kommen sie Theo ventil Gogh, letter 743 des 28.01.1889, in: Jansen/Luijten Bakker 2010.↩

13. "Aujourd"hui j"ai récommencé la toile que j`avais peinte außerdem Madame Roulin, celle que to water cause de mon accident était restée à l"état vague pour les mains <…> Comme arrangement außerdem couleurs impressioniste je n"ai jamais inventé mieux. Et je crois si on plaçait cette toile telle quelle dans un bateau außerdem pêcheurs même d"Islande, il warum en aurait qui sentiraient là-dedans la berceuse." Vincent ventil Gogh to paul Gauguin, letter 739 von 21.01.1889, in: Jansen/Luijten Bakker 2010. Cited here from↩

14. "…moi qui ne sais pas chanter en d"autres occasions, justement un vieux chant außerdem nourrice en songeant à ce que chantait la berceuse qui bercait les marins et que j"avais cherchée dans un arrangement dach couleurs avant juni tomber malade." Ibid. It is assumed the the wenig sketch of a fish containing the word ictus in the an are after the ende of van Gogh"s sentence "avant tomber malade" ("before falling ill") was added von Gauguin (see, klasse 10). Provided that Gauguin was not a physician but in accomplished fencer, the evidently used die word ictus in a sense an ext familiar to him. In fencing circles it means zu make a pass, lunge or thrust. On ns significance des the word "ictus" an Gauguin, see hans Kaufmann and Rita Wildegans, Van Goghs Ohr: paulus Gauguin und das Pakt ns Schweigens, berlin 2008, p. 326↩

15. Vincent ventil Gogh kommen sie Arnold Koning, letter 740 of 22.01.1889 (as grad 6)↩

16. Vincent ventil Gogh to Theo van Gogh, letter 743 of 28.01.1889 (as note 4)↩

17. Jan Hulsker, "Van Gogh, Roulin and the two Arlésiennes: teil I", The Burlington Magazine, vol. 134, no. 1074, september 1992, pp. 570–577 (here p. 577)↩

18. Vincent van Gogh zu Arnold Koning, letter 740 des 22.01.1889 (as grad 6)↩

19. Cf. Friedrich von Zglinicki, Die Wiege, volkskundlich, kulturgeschichtlich, kunstwissenschaftlich, medizinhistorisch, Regensburg 1979; cf. Also Ferdinand Fellinger, Das Kind bei der altfranzösischen Literatur, Göttingen 1908, esp. P. 121↩

20. Vincent ventil Gogh, Portrait des Madame Roulin und Baby Marcelle, December 1888, ns 490, JH 1637, Philadelphia, Philadelphia Museum of Art↩

21. The idea of a cradle rope or cord may schutz been prompted by memories von the short duration during i m sorry he live with die impoverished prostitute Sien und her children, including a newborn.↩

22. "The loving grip and tension on the rope gift a special difficulty for in artist who constantly had trouble v hands." stephen Naifeh, Gregory White Smith, Van Gogh, die Life, neu York 2011, p. 701↩

23. Douglas W. Druick und Peter Kost Zegers., Van Gogh and Gauguin: the Studio von the South, exh. Cat. Chicago Institute von Art und Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam, london 2001, fig. 141, p. 261; fig. 14, p. 271; figs. 19, 20 und 21, p. 273; idem., Van Gogh und Gauguin, das Atelier ns Südens, Belser 2002, ibid.↩

24. In advance of the exhibition Van Gogh and Gauguin, the Studio von the South (see grad 23), ns majority des the paints produced über the two artists during Gauguin"s stay an Arles, including the series la Berceuse, underwent a range des scientific investigations (details bei Hoermann Lister 2001, p. 63f., klasse 2). Ns results proved that "the rope was notfall part des the anfangsverdacht underdrawing" (idem. P. 76). Ns question occurs as to whether ns indication made by a brush bei the erste wet underlayer signifies the future course of ns rope or die shape of a fold in Madame Roulin"s skirt.↩

25. Vincent ventil Gogh kommen sie Theo ventil Gogh, letter 736 von 17.01.1889, in: Jansen/Luijten Bakker 2010↩

26. "Vous êtes taciturn, mais moi je le serai aussi." Letter indigenous Emile Bernard kommen sie Albert Aurier, postmarked 1.1.1889, facsimile und transcript Nouveau Drouot auction house, Paris, 29.03.1985. Cited here from↩

27. Kaufmann und Wildegans 2008↩

28. Judy Sund, True to Temperament: van Gogh and Naturalist Literature, Cambridge 1992, p. 215.↩

29. "Gauguin a-t-il jamais lu Tartarin sur les Alpes et se souvient-il dach l"illustre copain Tarasconais de Tartarin qui avait un telle creativity qu"il avait sie coup imaginé toute une Suisse imaginaire? Se souvient-il du noeud dans une corde retrouvé en haut von Alpes après la chute. Et toi, qui désire savoir comment étaient les choses, as tu déjà lu le Tartarin tout entier.... Cela t"apprendrait passablement à reconnaître Gauguin. C"est très serieusement que je t"engage à revoir ce i dans le livre außerdem Daudet." Vincent van Gogh kommen sie Theo van Gogh, letter 736 von 17.01.1889, in: Jansen/Luijten Bakker 2010. Cited here from↩

30. "Avez vous déjà lu Tartarin en plein maintenant? L"imagination sie midi rend copains, allez, et entre nous nous avons amitié toujours." Vincent van Gogh to paulus Gauguin, letter 739 of 21.01.1889 (as klasse 13).↩

31. Alphonse Daudet, Tartarin sur les Alpes, Calmann-Lévy, Paris: ausführung Figaro 1885. A second ausführung appeared that same year, published von Dubuisson an Paris, followed by a der dritte tag edition bei 1886, und so on in a succession von different editions, published weist short intervals von different publishers und featuring different illustrations, including des the rope. I base myself below upon die first, November1885 edition von Calmann-Lévy, Paris.↩

32. "On trouva seulement au Dôme freundin Goûter un bout außerdem corde resté dans une anfractuosité de glace. Mais cette corde, chose singulière, était coupée aux deux bouts comme avec un werkzeug trenchant." Ibid., p. 319↩

33. "si facile aux histoires invraisemblables, aux mensonges audacieux et vite refutes". Ibid., p. 333↩

34. Ibid., p. 334↩

35. Gauguin left Arles an great haste and left behind notfall only his fencing mask, fencing gloves und sketchbooks however even his house key. Hinweisen his request, his dinge were sent on ~ him.↩

36. "Comment Gauguin peut il prétendre avoir craint dach me déranger par sa présence alors qu"il saurait difficilement nier qu"il a su que continuellement je l"ai demandé et qu"on le lui a dit et redit que j"insistais à le voir à l"instant. Justement pour lui dire de garder cela to water lui et pour moi sans te déranger toi.– Il n"a pas voulu écouter." Vincent ventil Gogh zu Theo van Gogh, letter 736 of 17.01.1889 (as klasse 29).↩

37. Vincent van Gogh danach considered make a La Berceuse portrait the central panel von a triptych, flanked von two des his Sunflowers in a Vase images that had actually hung in Gauguin"s bedroom an Arles. See Vincent van Gogh to Theo ventil Gogh, letter 776 von 23.05.1889, in: Jansen/Luijten Bakker 2010.↩