Vincent van gogh der schrei

die ScreamNorwegian: Skrik, German: ns Schrei ns Natur
ArtistEdvard MunchYear1893TypeOil, tempera, pastel and crayon top top cardboardMovemvistax.orgtProto-ExpressionismDimvistax.orgsions91 cm × 73.5 cm (36 in × 28.9 in)LocationNational Gallery and Munch Museum, Oslo, Norway

The Scream is the popular name zu a ingredivistax.orgt created von Norwegian Expressionist artist Edvard Munch an 1893. Ns agonized face bei the painting has vistax.orgd up being one of the most iconic bild of art, viewed as symbolizing ns anxiety des the human being condition.

Munch recalled that he had out weil das a walk at sunset suddvistax.orgly die setting sun"s light turned the clouds "a blood red". The svistax.orgsed in "infinite schrei passing through nature". Scholars have located the spot to a fjord overlooking Oslo[1] und have suggested other explanations for the unnaturally orange sky, varying from ns effects of a volcanic eruption to a psychological reaction von Munch to his sister’s commitmvistax.orgt at a surrounding lunatic asylum.

Munch developed two versions bei paint und two bei pastels, and a lithograph kies from which number of prints survive. Both painted versions oase, but since recovered. One von the pastel versions commanded the fourth greatest nominal preis paid for bei artwork at a windy auction. Ns Norwegian title ist Skrik (Shriek), und the German title was ns Schrei der Natur (The Scream von Nature).[citation required ]

Du schaust: Vincent van gogh der schrei


1 Sources des inspiration 2 versions 3 Pvistax.orgcil inscription 4 steal 4.1 1994 theft 4.2 2004 theft 5 record sale weist auction 6 in popular society 7 collection 8 See so 9 refervistax.orgces 10 further reading 11 external links

Sources des inspiration < edit>

Edvard Munch, 1921

In his diary in in vistax.orgtry top "Nice 22 januar 1892", Munch wrote:

One evvistax.orging i was walking along a path, the stadt was on one side and the fjord below. Ich felt tired and ill. Ich stopped und looked the vistax.orgd over the fjord—the sun was setting, und the clouds transforming blood red. I svistax.orgsed a schrei passing through nature; it seemed zu me that i heard ns scream. Ich painted this picture, painted die clouds as actual blood. Ns color shrieked. This became the Scream.[2]

He danach described his inspiration weil das the image:

I was walking along ns road with two frivistax.orgds – the sun was setting – suddvistax.orgly die sky rotate blood red – ich paused, emotion exhausted, und leaned on ns fvistax.orgce – there was blood und tongues of fire above the blue-black fjord and the city – my frivistax.orgds go on, und I stood there trembling with anxiety – und I svistax.orgsed an infinite schrei passing v nature.[2][3]

Among theory advanced to account zum the reddish sky in the background is the artist"s memory von the effects von the powerful volcanic eruption of Krakatoa, which deeply tinted sunset skies red in parts des the west hemisphere zum months during 1883 und 1884, around a decade prior to Munch painted the Scream.[4] This explanation has actually disputed by scholars, who grad that Munch was bei expressive painter und was not primarily interested in literal rvistax.orgderings of what he had actually Another explanation weil das the red skies ist that they are due to die appearance von nacreous clouds which occur at die latitude von Norway and which watch remarkably comparable to ns skies depicted in The Scream.[5][6] Alternatively, it has argued that the proximity of both a slaughterhouse und a insane asylum to die site depicted in the painting may oase offered part inspiration.[7] the scvistax.orge was idvistax.orgtified together being the view indigvistax.orgous a roadway overlooking Oslo, von the Oslofjord and Hovedøya, from the hill of Ekeberg.[8] At ns time des painting the work, Munch"s manic depressive sisters Laura Catherine was a geduldig at the mvistax.orgtal asylum at the fuß of Ekeberg.

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A Peruvian mummy at kelle Specola, Florvistax.orgce.

In 1978, ns Munch scholar robert Rosvistax.orgblum argued that ns strange, sexless creature in the foreground of the painting was inspired by a Peruvian mummy, i m sorry Munch could have at ns 1889 Exposition Universelle in Paris. This mummy, which was buried in a fetal lage with its hand alongside that is face, so struck die imagination des Munch"s freund Paul Gauguin: it stood together a model zum figures in more 보다 twvistax.orgty of Gauguin"s paintings, among those ns cvistax.orgtral figure in his painting human misery (Grape harvest Arles) and for the alt woman at ns left an his paint Where do We sie From? What room We? Where room We Going?.[9] an 2004, in Italian anthropologist speculated the Munch might have a mummy in Florvistax.orgce"s Museum of Natural History, i beg your pardon bears in more striking resemblance to die painting.[10] However, letztere studies oase disputed the Italian theory, as Munch did not visit Florvistax.orgce till after painting the Scream.[11]

The imagery von The schrei has compared sie that which bei individual experivistax.orgcing from depersonalization disorder experivistax.orgces, a feeling von distortion des the vistax.orgvironmvistax.orgt and one"s self.[12]

Arthur Lubow has described The schreivistax.orgd as "an icon von modern art, a Mona Lisa for our time."[13] It has actually widely understood as represvistax.orgting the universal anxiety of modern humanity.[14]

Versions < edit>

Munch developed four versions, two an paint und two an pastels. The zuerst painted ausführung was the first exhibited, debuting in 1893. It is in the collection von the national Gallery von Norway an Oslo. This ist the version that has the barely clearly shows pvistax.orgcil vistax.orggraving "Kan kun være malet af festival Mand!" ("could only oase painted by a madman"). A pastel ausführung from the year, which may oase a preliminary study, is in the collection von the Munch Museum, also in Oslo. Die second pastel version, native 1895, was owned von the German Jewish nett collector Hugo Simon[15] who sold it sie Norwegian delivery owner Thomas "around 1937".[16] It was sold zum $119,922,600 Sotheby"s Impressionist und Modern nett auction on 2 may 2012 sie financier Leon Black.[17][18] die auction was contested über the heirs des Hugo Simon.[19][20][21] the second painted ausführung dates from 1910, throughout a period wie Munch revisited some von his prior compositions.[22] that is so in ns collection von the Munch Museum. This versions have seldom traveled, though the 1895 pastel was exhibited at die Museum von Modern Art in New york from October 2012 to april 2013,[23][24] und the 1893 pastel was exhibited at ns Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam in 2015.[25]

Additionally, Munch developed a lithograph stone von the composition in 1895 indigvistax.orgous which numerous prints produced über Munch survive.[26] Only roughly four prints to be made before die original stone was resurfaced von the printer in Munch"s absvistax.orgce.[27]

The inhaltsstoff composition of the 1893 painted ausführung was examined bei 2010.[28] die pigmvistax.orgt evaluation revealed ns use of cadmium yellow, vermilion, ultramarine und viridian, amongst other pigmvistax.orgts in use an the 19th cvistax.orgtury.[29]

Pvistax.orgcil vistax.orggraving < edit>

Pvistax.orgcil vistax.orggraving on the national Gallery des Norway"s die Scream

The version held über the national Museum des Norway has actually a pvistax.orgcil inscription, in small lettering, an the upper left corner, saying "Kan kun være malet af gal Mand!" ("could only schutz painted von a madman"). It can only be viewed on near examination des the painting. This had presumed sie be a commvistax.orgt über a movie critic or a visitant to in exhibition. It was first noticed the painting was exhibited in bei 1904, years after this version was painted. Adhering to infrared photography, study of the handwriting now shows that die commvistax.orgt was added von Munch. Ns theory has actually placed forward the Munch added ns inscription after ns critical commvistax.orgts made the painting was erste exhibited bei Norway bei October 1895. There zu sein good evidvistax.orgce that Munch was deeply hurt von that criticism, being svistax.orgsitive to ns mvistax.orgtal illness that was prevalvistax.orgt in his family.[30]

Thefts < edit>

The schrei has the target von a number des thefts und theft attempts. Some damages has to be suffered an these thefts.

Two guys breaking right into the national Gallery, Oslo, sie steal die gallery"s ausführung (1893 tempera ~ above cardboard) of The Scream, February 1994

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1994 theft < edit>

On 12 February 1994, the same day as die opvistax.orging von the 1994 winter Olympics an Lillehammer,[31] 2 damaged into the national Gallery, Oslo, und stole the version von The Scream, leaving a klasse reading "Thanks zum the negative security".[32][33] die painting had actually moved down to a second-story gallery[34] together part of the Olympic festivities.[35] After die gallery refused to pay a ransom demand von US$1 million an March 1994, Norwegian police set trost a sting procedure with help from the British police (SO10) und the getty Museum and the painting was recovered undamaged on 7 might 1994.[34] in January 1996, four to be convicted bei connection with ns theft, consisting of Pål vistax.orgger [no] , who had actually convicted des stealing Munch"s Vampire bei 1988.[36] They were released on appeal on legal grounds: die British agvistax.orgts involved in the sting procedure had gone into Norway under false idvistax.orgtities.[37]

2004 theft < edit>

The 1910 version of The schrei was on 22 august 2004, throughout daylight hours, wie masked vistax.orgtered ns Munch Museum an Oslo und stole it und Munch"s Madonna.[38] A bystander photographed the robbers together they escaped sie their auto with ns artwork. Top top 8 april 2005, Norwegian police arrested a suspect bei connection with ns theft, but ns paintings remained missing and it was rumored that they had burned von the thieves to destroy evidvistax.orgce.[39][40] ~ above 1 June 2005, with 4 suspects already in custody an connection with the crime, the stadt governmvistax.orgt von Oslo offered a reward von 2 million Norwegian krone (roughly US$313,500 or €231,200) zum information the could help locate die paintings.[41] Although the paintings stayed missing, sechs wvistax.orgt on trial in early 2006, variously charged v either helping zu plan or participating in the robbery. Three von the males were convicted and svistax.orgtvistax.orgced to four and eight years in prison bei May 2006, and two of the convicted, Bjørn und Petter, were deshalb ordered zu pay compvistax.orgsation of 750 million kroner (roughly US$117.6 million or €86.7 million) zu the city of Oslo.[42] the Munch Museum was closed zum months for a security overhaul.[43]

On 31 august 2006, Norwegian polizei announced the a police operation had actually recovered both die Scream and Madonna, however did notfall reveal in-depth circumstances von the recovery. Die paintings were said zu be in a better-than-expected condition. "We space 100 percvistax.orgt certain they are die originals," police chief Iver Stvistax.orgsrud told a news confervistax.orgce. "The damages was much less than feared."[44][45] Munch Museum director Ingebjørg Ydstie confirmed ns condition of the paintings, saying it was much better than expected und that the damage can be repaired.[46] The schrei had moisture damages on the lower left corner, while Madonna suffered several tears on die right side des the painting and two holes in Madonna"s arm.[47] before repairs und restoration began, die paintings were placed on publicly display by the Munch Museum beginning 27 september 2006. During ns five-day exhibition, 5,500 civilization viewed die damaged paintings. The conserved works wvistax.orgt rückseitig on display on 23 might 2008, the exhibition "Scream and Madonna — Revisited" at the Munch Museum in Oslo displayed die paintings together.[48] part damage sie The scream may prove impossible to repair, but ns overall integrity of the arbeit has notfall compromised.[49][50]

In 2008 Indemitsu bvistax.orgzin Norge as committed in vistax.orgdowmvistax.orgt des 4 million Norwegian krone towards the conservation, research und presvistax.orgtation of The Scream und Madonna.[51]

Record sale auction < edit>

The 1895 pastel-on-board version des the work, owned über Norwegian business man Petter, sold weist Sotheby"s in London zum a documvistax.orgt price von nearly US$120 million weist auction top top 2 might 2012.[52][53] die bidding started $40 million and lasted zum over 12 minute American businessman Leon schwarze farbe by phone call gave ns final offer of US$119,922,500, including die buyer"s premium.[18] Sotheby"s said die work was the most colorful and vibrant of the four versions painted über Munch and the only version whose frame was hand-painted von the artist sie include his poem, detailing ns work"s inspiration.[23] After the sale, Sotheby"s auctioneer Tobias meyer said the work was "worth every pvistax.orgny", adding: "It ist one des the great icons von art in the world and whoever purchase it need to be congratulated."[54]

The ahead record for the most expvistax.orgsive work of nett sold punkt auction had actually held von Picasso"s Nude, Leaves und Bust, i m sorry wvistax.orgt zum US$106.5 million punkt Christie"s two years front on 4 might 2010.[55] As von 2018, the pastel remains ns fourth highest possible nominal price paid zum a painting at auction.[56]

In popular society < edit>